For Thames Water, Anglian Water, Southern Water, South West Water, Welsh Water, United Utilities, and Yorkshire Water in separate studies from 1998 to present: Stage 1 Customer Valuation Studies develop a set of customer/social values to input into business planning models for investment optimisation using cost benefit analysis. These include all key water and wastewater services and impacts on the environment. Stage 2 studies present a smaller set of services in more detail to assess customer opinion and/or willingness to pay / accept compensation. The research covers both household and business customers. We have also conducted primary customer research on separate topics like visitors’ preferences for bathing water quality, avertive behaviour for tap water quality and hardness, and customers’ willingness to subsidise social tariffs.